Essay for the Moral Progress Children, Through the Ages and Stages; Referring to Kohlberg and Lickona.

 Essay within the Moral Progress Children, Through the Ages and Stages Mentioning Kohlberg and Lickona.

As teachers, we need to be familiar with moral devel¬opment of our learners. Why? The answer is, as a class teacher, were confronted with numerous issues pertaining to our students' moral reasoning each day. These may range between decisions earning about if to be a cheater on a check to whether being tolerant toward a classmate who is staying picked on by simply others. Each day, our college students make a huge selection of comments and decisions that involve moral reasoning. Understanding how and when as a solution, requires the teacher to understand the theory and principles root the process of meaningful development. There are several theories and principles simply by psychologists linked to the process of ethical development. Freud, a interpersonal theorist, proposed a psychoanalytic theory where children contact form a notion or superego through id with the same sex parent (Cole & Cole, 1996). A child could behave morally in order to avoid guilt and criticism from the internalized superego. The conscience was considered produced by age six, with encouragement during central childhood. Erickson, another cultural theorist, altered Freudian theory by increasing the idea that moral development ongoing into adult life (Berk, 1994). The superego was looked at more positively with behavior motivated simply by ideals versus sanctions. In comparison, Bandura's interpersonal learning theory (1991) traces moral expansion as a consequence of modeling, where kids observe and imitate the moral tendencies of the adults in their globe. The model's characteristics are essential as children tend to copy those who are identified to be caring, competent, and consistent. Damon constructed a theory whereby morality appeared from cultural experiences with parents and peers (Cole & Cole, 1996). Within reasoning after the age of 8-10 reflect a child's elevating sophistication by logically reviewing a situation, although also taking into consideration empathy and emotional feeling in their reviews as well. Piaget developed a two-stage notion of cognitive meaningful reasoning, where mental structures called schemas are adapted and current over time (Berk, 1994; Santrock, 1998). This kind of theory keeps that young children perceive rules as unchangeable and needing obedience. About age 11, the cognitive capacity is acquired to get critical pondering and reasoning, and kids then go on to the second meaning stage exactly where rules will be viewed as changeable and socially agreed upon (Berk, 1994). Kohlberg (1983) modified Piagetian theory and layed out six sequential stages of thinking that encourage moral patterns. This major perspective in moral advancement pro¬posed simply by Lawrence Kohlberg (1958, 1986), as mentioned before, saw Piaget's stages of cognitive levels of creation serve as their underpinnings. Kohlberg arrived at his theory following interviewing children, adolescents, and adults (primarily males) of the views on several moral dilemmas. Here is one of the type of problem he presented: A woman is usually near loss of life and is struggling with a special sort of cancer. There may be only one medicine that doctors think might save her. It was lately discovered by a druggist surviving in the same community as over. The medication was high-priced to make, however the druggist is definitely charging 10 times what the medicine cost him to make. The sick women's husband, Heinz tries to acquire the money to buy the medication from everywhere he can think about but he can't raise enough money. He explains to the druggist that his wife can be dying and asks him to sell it to him cheaper or let him pay later. Nevertheless the druggist says, " Not any, I discovered it and I deserve to make funds from it”. Later, Heinz gets eager, breaks to the druggist shop, and shop lifts the drug for his wife. Kohlberg constructed a theory of moral development which has 3 key levels with 2 levels at each with the level. Morality at the 1st level is recognized as Preconventional values. It is determined by the consequences of the action instead of by the inherent goodness or badness of the act. The...

References: 1 . Lickona, Big t. (1991) Education for character: how each of our schools can teach respect and responsibility. New york city: Bantam Catalogs

2 . Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-pride. San Francisco: Freeman

3. Berk, L. (1994). Child Advancement (3rd Edition). Boston: Allyn & Sausage

4. Cole, M., & Cole, S i9000. (1996). The development of children (3rd Edition). Ny: W. They would. Freeman & Co.

a few. Santrock, T. (1998). Age of puberty (7th Edition). Boston: McGraw-Hill

6. Kohlberg, L., Levine, C., & Hewer, A. (1983). Meaning stages: A current formulation and a response to critics. Basel: Karger.

7. Bandura, A. (1991). Cultural cognitive theory of moral believed and action. In T. Kurtines & J. Gewirtz (Eds. ), Handbook of moral behavior and development (Vol. 1, pp. 45-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

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